Volume 20, Issue 1 (2023)                   ioh 2023, 20(1): 244-263 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , shahtaheri@tums.ac.ir
Abstract:   (520 Views)
Background and aims:
Chemicals are necessary for many economic activities and daily life. However, they can create noxious effects on individuals. It is required more attention to human (worker) health on the route of attainment of sustainable development. The present study reviews the studies done in the field of the effect of toxicants on workers' health. Also, the study investigated the role of toxicology in ensuring sustainable development.

Methods: This study has systematically reviewed articles from 2010 to 2020 in PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus and SID. Keywords of MeSH and non- MeSH related to the aim of the present study were searched in English and Persian languages. Also, the investigations were updated to 2022. Finally, 32 articles were investigated in this study.
Results: Studied articles had been carried out in the developed countries (62.5%), developing countries (34.38%), and the least developed country (3.12%). The chemicals were subdivided into four groups of chemicals: solvents, pesticides, heavy metals, and other chemicals. The effects were observed in the exposure to solvents (9 articles), pesticides (8 articles), heavy metals (6 articles), others (9 articles). Also, the studies included population-based case-control, cross-sectional, case-control and cohort.
Conclusion: A wide range of individuals have an exposure to the effects of chemicals. A strong relationship has been observed between occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents, heavy metals, herbicides, and organophosphates to adverse effects. More awareness of decision-makers and employers on the effects of toxicants or hazardous chemicals can control, help prevent effects, and also achieve sustainable development.
Full-Text [PDF 859 kb]   (138 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Occupational Toxicology
Received: 2023/01/9 | Accepted: 2023/04/30 | Published: 2023/03/30

1. Kudłak B, Owczarek K, Namieśnik J. Selected issues related to the toxicity of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents-a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2015. [DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-4794-y]
2. Raymond Park J, McFarlane I, Hartley Phipps R, Ceddia G. The role of transgenic crops in sustainable development. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2011;9:2-21. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00565.x]
3. Gentz MC, Murdoch G, King GF. Tandem use of selective insecticides and natural enemies for effective, reduced-risk pest management. Biol Control. 2010;52(3):208-15. [DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.07.012]
4. Khadem M, Faribod F, Norouzi P, Rahimi Forushani A, Ganjali MR, Yarahmadi R, et al. Voltammetric determination of carbofuran pesticide in biological and environmental samples using a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer sensor, a multivariate optimization. Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2020;75(5):669-78. [DOI:10.1134/S1061934820050068]
5. Schettgen T, Gube M, Esser A, Alt A, Kraus T. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels of workers in a transformer recycling company, their family members, and employees of surrounding companies. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2012 (75):414-22. [DOI:10.1080/15287394.2012.674905]
6. Market share of world region in the chemical industry from 2009 to 2017. https://www.lab-worldwide.com/facts-and-figures-of-the-global-chemical-pharmaceutical-industry-gal-8728/?p=4.
7. OECD. OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050. OECD publishing, Paris; 2012.
8. Production of chemicals hazardous to health, EU-28, 2004-2018. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.phptitle=Chemicals_production_and_consumption_statistics&oldid=477539.
9. Usuda K, Kono K, Ohnishi K, Nakayama S, Sugiura Y, Kitamura Y, et al. Toxicological aspects of cadmium and occupational health activities to prevent workplace exposure in Japan: A narrative review. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2010;000(00):1-9.
10. Igbinosa EO, Odjadjare EE, Chigor VN, Igbinosa IH, Emoghene AO, Ekhaise FO, et al. Toxicological profile of chlorophenols and their derivatives in the environment: The public health perspective. The ScientificWorld Journal. 2013:1-11. [DOI:10.1155/2013/460215]
11. Alhamdow A, Lindh C, Albin M, P. G, Tinnerberg H, Broberg K. Early markers of cardiovascular disease are associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Sci Rep. 2017;7(9426):1-11. [DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-09956-x]
12. Bendtsen KM, Bengtsen E, Saber AT, Vogel U. A review of health effects associated with exposure to jet engine emission in and around airport. Environ Health 2021;20(10):1-21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-021-00705-2 [DOI:10.1186/s12940-020-00690-y]
13. Ge C, Peters S, Olsson A, Portengen L, Schuz J, Almansa J, et al. Diesel engine exhaust exposure, smoking, and lung cancer subtype risks: A pooled exposure-response analysis of 14 case-control studies. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202:402-11. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201911-2101OC [DOI:10.1164/rccm.201910-1926OC]
14. Naughton SX, Terry AVJ. Neurotoxicity in cute and repeated organophosphate exposure. Toxicology 2018;408:101-12. [DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2018.08.011]
15. Toxic chemicals released by industries this year, tons. 2019. Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/view/toxchem/ [Internet].
16. WHO. Chemical safety - Data and statistics - WHO/Europe. Available at: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/chemical-safety/data-and-statistics.
17. Priestly BG, Marco PD, Sim M, Moore MR, Langley A. Toxicology in Australia: A Key Component of Environmental Health. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2007;70:1578-83. [DOI:10.1080/15287390701429505]
18. Desrosiers TA, Lawson CC, Meyer RE, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Waters MA, et al. Maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents during early pregnancy and risks of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Occup Environ Med. 2012;69:493-9. [DOI:10.1136/oemed-2011-100245]
19. Tunsaringkarn T, Siriwong W, Rungsiyothin A, Nopparatbundit S. Occupational Exposure of Gasoline Station Workers to BTEX Compounds in Bangkok, Thailand. The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2012;3(3):117-25.
20. Hadkhale K, Martinsen JI, Weiderpass E, Kjaerheim K, Sparen P, Tryggvadottir L, et al. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer: A population-based case control study in Nordic countries. Int J Cancer. 2017;140:1736-46. [DOI:10.1002/ijc.30593]
21. Viegas S, Ladeira C, Nunes C, Malta-Vacas J, Gomes M, Brito M, et al. Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 2010;5(25):1-8. [DOI:10.1186/1745-6673-5-25]
22. Liu HH, Lin MH, Chan CI, Chen HL. Oxidative damage in foundry workers occupationally co-exposed to PAHs and metals. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010;213:93-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2009.12.005]
23. Cocco P, t'Mannetje A, Fadda D, Melis M, Becker N, de Sanjose' S, et al. Occupational exposure to solvents and risk of lymphoma subtypes: results from the Epilymph case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:341-7. [DOI:10.1136/oem.2009.046839]
24. Attarchi MS, Labbafinejad Y, Mohammadi S. Occupational exposure to different levels of mixed organic solvents and colour vision impairment. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2010;32:558-62. [DOI:10.1016/j.ntt.2010.05.003]
25. Vahhabi Shekarloo M, Mazinani M, Khodakarim S, M RA, Kheyri H, Mousavi Mehraban AA, et al. Irritation risk assessment of occupational exposure to formaldehyde from Melamine dinnerware workshops in Tehran. Iran Occupational Health. 2016;13(2):50-7. [Persian]
26. Jalali M, Rahimi Moghadam S, Baziar M, Hesam G, Moradpour Z, Zakeri HR. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, lifetime cancer probability, and hazard quotient in pathology lab employees in Iran: a quantitative risk assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2021;28(2):1878-88. [DOI:10.1007/s11356-020-10627-0]
27. Li D, Zhou Z, Qing D, He Y, Wu T, Miao Mea. Occupational exposure to bisphenol-A(BPA) and the risk of Self-Reported Male Sexual Dysfunction. Human Reproduction. 2010;25(2):519-27. [DOI:10.1093/humrep/dep381]
28. Ogut S, Gultekin F, Kisioglu AN, Kucukoner E. Oxidative stress in the blood of farm workers following intensive pesticide exposure. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2011;27(9):820-5. [DOI:10.1177/0748233711399311]
29. Hayden KM, Norton MC, Darcey D, Østbye T, Zandi PP, Breitner JCS, et al. Occupational exposure to pesticides increases the risk of incident AD: The Cache County Study. Neurology. 2010;74:1524-30. [DOI:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181dd4423]
30. Cocco P, Satta G, Dubois S, Pili C, Pilleri M, Zucca M, et al. Lymphoma risk and occupational exposure to pesticides: results of the Epilymph study. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70:91-8. [DOI:10.1136/oemed-2012-100845]
31. Miranda-Contreras L, Gómez-Pérez R, Rojas G, Cruz I, Berrueta L, Salmen S, et al. Occupational exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides affects sperm chromatin integrity and reproductive hormone levels among Venezuelan farm workers. Journal of Occupational Health. 2013. [DOI:10.1539/joh.12-0144-FS]
32. Koutros S, Silverman DT, Alavanja MCR, Andreotti G, Lerro CC, Heltshe S, et al. Occupational exposure to pesticides and bladder cancer risk. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2016;45(3):792-805. [DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv195]
33. Bonner MR, Freeman LEB, Hoppin JA, Koutros S, Sandler DP, Lynch CF, et al. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2017;125(4):544-51. [DOI:10.1289/EHP456]
34. Jayasumana C, Paranagama P, Agampodi S, Wijewardane C, Gunatilake S, Siribaddana S. Drinking well water and occupational exposure to Herbicides is associated with chronic kidney disease, in Padavi-Sripura, Sri Lanka. Jayasumana et al Environmental Health. 2015;14(6):1-10. [DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-14-6]
35. Kumar SN, Vaibhav K, Bastia B, Singh V, Ahluwalia M, Agrawal U, et al. Occupational exposure to pesticides in female tea garden workers and adverse birth outcomes. Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2021;35:1-13. [DOI:10.1002/jbt.22677]
36. Wijesekara GUS, Fernando DMS, Wijerathna S, Bandara N. Environmental and occupational exposures as a cause of male infertility. Ceylon Medical Journal. 2015;60:52-6. [DOI:10.4038/cmj.v60i2.7090]
37. Wu HM, Lin-Tan DT, Wang ML, Huang HY, Lee CL, Wang HS, et al. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2012;10(91):1-5. [DOI:10.1186/1477-7827-10-91] []
38. Nassar N, Abeywardana P, Barker A, Bower C. Parental occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals and risk of hypospadias in infants. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67(9):585-9. [DOI:10.1136/oem.2009.048272]
39. Sińczuk-Walczak H, Szymczak M, Hałatek T. Effects of occupational exposure to arsenic on THE nervous system: Clinical and neurophysiological studies. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 2010;23(4):347-55. [DOI:10.2478/v10001-010-0034-3]
40. Koszewicz M, Markowska K, Waliszewska-Prosol M, Poreba R, Gac P, Szymanska-Chabowska Aea. The impact of chronic co-exposure to different heavy metals on small fibers of peripheral nerves. A study of metal industry workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 2021;16(12):1-8. [DOI:10.1186/s12995-021-00302-6]
41. Neitzel RL, Sayler SK, Arain AL, Nambunmee K. Metal levels, genetic instability, and renal markers in electronic waste workers in Thailand. Int J Occup Environ Med 2020;11(2):72-84. [DOI:10.34172/ijoem.2020.1826]
42. Wang L, Zhao Y, Liu X, Huang T, Wang Y, Gao H, et al. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2015. [DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-5203-2]
43. Kamal A, Naseem Malik R, Martellini T, Cincinelli A. Cancer risk evaluation of brick kiln workers exposed to dust bound PAHs in Punjab province (Pakistan). Science of the Total Environment 2014;493 562-70. [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.140]
44. Kimbrough RD, Krouskas CA, Xu W, Shields PG. Mortality among capacitor workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a long-term update. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2015;88:85-101. [DOI:10.1007/s00420-014-0940-y]
45. Abballe A, Barbieri PG, di Domenico A, Garattini S, Iacovella N, Ingelido AM, et al. Occupational exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs of metallurgical workers in some industrial plants of the Brescia area, northern Italy. Chemosphere 2013;90 49-56. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.073]
46. Huang HB, Chen GW, Wang CJ, Lin YY, Liou SH, Lai CH, et al. Exposure to Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and DNA Damage in Taiwanese Traffic Conductors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22(1):102-8. [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0706]
47. Alhamdow A, Essig YJ, Krais AM, Gustavsson P, Tinnerberg H, Lindh CHea. Fluorene exposure among PAH-exposed workers is associated with epigenetic markers related to lung cancer. Occupational Environmental Medicine. 2020;77:488-95. [DOI:10.1136/oemed-2020-106413]
48. Elbarazi I, El-Zaemey S, Saddik B, Ádám B, El Sadig M, Abdullahi AS, et al. Estimate of Occupational Exposure to Carcinogens among Migrant Workers in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(13012):1-12. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph192013012]
49. Zhang H, Li Y, Zhang X, Chen W, Liang Q, Li C, et al. Potential occupational exposure of parents to endocrine disrupting chemicals, adverse birth outcomes, and the modification effects of multi-vitamins supplement and infant sex. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2022;15(233). [DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113314]
50. Chang KF, Fang GC, Chen JC, Wu YS. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia: a review from 1999 to 2004. Environ Pollut. 2006;142:388-96. [DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.09.025]
51. Cincinelli A, Del Bubba M, Martellini T, Gambaro AA, Lepri L. Gas-particle concentration and distribution of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Prato (Italy). Chemosphere 2007;68:472-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.12.089]
52. Cincinelli A, Stefani A, Seniori Costantini S, Lepri L. Characterization of n-alkanes and PAHs in PM10 samples in Prato. Ann Chim (Rome) 2004;94:281-93. [DOI:10.1002/adic.200490033]
53. Gambaro A, Manodori L, Moret I, Capodaglio G, Cescon P. Transport of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the Venice Lagoon. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:5357-64. [DOI:10.1021/es049084s]
54. Martellini T, Giannoni M, Lepri L, Katsoyiannis A, Cincinelli A. One year intensive PM2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsmonitoring in the area of Tuscany, Italy. Concentrations, source understanding and implications. Environ Pollut. 2012;164:252-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.12.040]
55. Peng C, Chen W, Liao X, Wang M, Ouyang Z, Jiao Wea. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soils of Beijing: status, sources, distribution and potential risk. Environ Pollut 2011;159:802-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.11.003]
56. International Labor Organization, I. ILO Global Estimates on International Migrant Workers: Results and Methodology; ILO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2021.
57. Gore AC. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(11):1705-6. [DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5766]
58. Final report on carcinogens background document for formaldehyde. Republic carcinogen background document. National toxicology program. 2010.
59. Asilian H, Mortazavi SB, Kazemian H, Phaghiehzadeh S, Shahtaheri SJ, Salem M. Removal of ammonia from air, using three Iranian natural zeolites. Iranian J Publ Health. 2004;33(1):45-51.
60. Kamgou K, Abdi K, Khadem M, Heidari M, Heravizadeh O, Daneyali A, et al. Development of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction solidified floating organic drop (DLLME SFOD) method for determination of cadmium in biological samples. Journal of Health and Safety at Work. 2020;10(1):72-6.
61. Shahtaheri SJ, Abdollahi M, Golbabaei F, Rahimi-Froushani A, Ghamari F. Optimization of SPE for analysis of mandelic acid as a biomarker of exposure to ethyl benzene. Iranian J Env Health Sci Eng. 2004;1(2):70-80.
62. Shahtaheri SJ, Ghamari F, Golbabaei F, Rahimi-Froushani A, Abdollahi M. Sample preparation followed by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis for monitoring muconic acid as a biomarker of occupational exposure to benzene. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 2005;11(4):377-88. [DOI:10.1080/10803548.2005.11076658]
63. Maroni M, Fanetti AC, Metruccio F. Risk assessment and management of occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture. Med Lav 2006;97:430-7.
64. Nigg HN, Beier RC, Carter Oea. Exposure to pesticides. In: Baker SR, Wilkinson CF, eds. The effect of pesticides on human health1990. 36-130 p.
65. Van Maele-Fabry G, Duhayon S, Lison D. A systematic review of myeloid leukemias and occupational pesticide exposure. Cancer Causes and Control. 2007;18(5):457-78. [DOI:10.1007/s10552-007-0122-2]
66. Van Maele-Fabry G, Willems JL. Occupation related pesticide exposure and cancer of the prostate: a meta-analysis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2003;60(9):634-42. [DOI:10.1136/oem.60.9.634]
67. Abdollahi M, Ranjbar A, Shadnia S, Nikfar S, Rezaiee A. Pesticides and oxidative stress: a review. Medical Science Monitor. 2004;10:RA144-RA7.
68. Tunc¸men H. Blood Lipid Peoxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Levels of the Animals Feeding on Drinking Waters Polluted With Pesticides: Su¨leyman Demirel University, Science Institute; 2004.
69. Mahmood I, Imadi SR, Shazadi K, Gul A, Hakeem KR. Effects of Pesticides on Environment. Plant, Soil and Microbes. 2016:253-69. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-27455-3_13]
70. Sharma DR, Thapa RB, Manandhar HK, Shrestha SM, Pradhan SB. Use of pesticides in Nepal and impacts on human health and environment. J Agric Environ. 2012;13:67-72. [DOI:10.3126/aej.v13i0.7590]
71. Senthil kumar J, Banudevi S, Sharmila M, Murugesan P, Srinivasan N, Balasubramanian K, et al. Effects of Vitamin C and E on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced oxidative stress, androgen binding protein and lactate in rat Sertoli cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2004;19(2):201-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2004.08.001]
72. Ghavidel F, Shahtaheri SJ, Khani Jazani R, Torabbeigi M, Rahimi Forushani A, Khadem M. Optimization of solid phase microextraction procedure followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for pesticides Butachlor and Chlorpyrifos. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2014;5:535-46. [DOI:10.4236/ajac.2014.59061]
73. Ghavidel F, Shahtaheri SJ, Torabbeigi M, Rahimi Forushani A. Microwave Assisted Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction for Analysis of Butachlor and Chlorpyrifos Pesticides in Urine. Analytical Chemistry Letters. 2014;4(4):224 - 31. [DOI:10.1080/22297928.2014.995704]
74. Rahiminezhad M, Shahtaheri SJ, Ganjali MR, Koohpaei AR, Rahimi Forushani A, Golbabaei F. Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as a Solid Phase Sorbent for Pesticide Dursban. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene. 2010;2(2):51-6.
75. Ramin M, Khadem M, Omidi F, Pourhosein M, Golbabaei F, Shahtaheri SJ. Development of Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction procedure for trace determination of Malathion Pesticide in urine samples. Iran J Public Health. 2019;48(10):1893-902. [DOI:10.47176/mjiri.33.71]
76. Carreras HA, Wannaz ED, Pignata ML. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:117-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.07.018]
77. Menhage-Bena R, Kazemian H, Ghazi-Khansari M, Hosseini M, Shahtaheri SJ. Evaluation of Some Natural Zeolites and Their Relevant Synthetic Types as Sorbents for Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water. Iranian J Publ Health. 2004;33(1):36-44.
78. Tirgar A, Golbabaei F, Hamedi J, Nourijelyani K, Shahtaheri SJ, Moosavi SR. Removal of airborne hexavalent chromium mist using chitosan gel beads as a new control approach. Int J Environ Sci Tech. 2006;3(3):305-13. [DOI:10.1007/BF03325938]
79. Shahtaheri SJ, Ibrahimi L, Golbabaei F, Hosseini M, Fouladi B. Optimization of sample preparation for 1-hydroxypyrene as a major biomarker of exposure to pahs prior to HPLC. Iranian J Publ Health. 2006;35(1):33-41.
80. Heacock M, Kelly CB, Asante KAea. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations: A Growing Global Problem. Environ Health Perspect. 2016;124:550-5. [DOI:10.1289/ehp.1509699]
81. Leung AOW, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS, Wong MH. Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil and combusted residue at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in Southeast China. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:2730-7. [DOI:10.1021/es0625935]
82. Li H, Yu L, Sheng G, Fu J, Peng P. Severe PCDD/F and PBDD/F pollution in air around an electronic waste dismantling area in China. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:5641-6. [DOI:10.1021/es0702925]
83. Wong CSC, Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Aydin A, Wong MH. Evidence of excessive releases of metals from primitive e-waste processing in Guiyu, China. Environ Pollut. 2007;148:62-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.11.006]
84. Bi XH, Thomas GO, Jones KC, Qu W, Sheng G, Martin FL. Exposure of electronics dismantling workers to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in south China. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:5647-53. [DOI:10.1021/es070346a]
85. Chan JKY, Xing GH, Xu Y, Liang Y, Chen LX, Wu SC, et al. Body loadings and health risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at an intensive electronic-waste recycling site in China. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:7668-74. [DOI:10.1021/es071492j]
86. Huo X, Peng L, Xu X, Zheng L, Qiu B, Qi Z. Elevated blood lead levels of children in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling town in China. Environ Health Perspec. 2007;115:1113-7. [DOI:10.1289/ehp.9697]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.