Volume 20, Issue 1 (2023)                   ioh 2023, 20(1): 138-150 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Fallah ghanbari M R, Jahangiri K, Pouyakian M, Ghaffari F. Separation distance of petrol and LPG cargo tankers in parking lot: a consequence modeling study. ioh 2023; 20 (1) :138-150
URL: http://ioh.iums.ac.ir/article-1-3394-en.html
Full professor of Health in Disasters and Emergencies Department, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(SBMU) , k.jahangiri@sbmu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (752 Views)
Abstract
Background and aims:
  Parking areas that are gathering places for tank trucks are potentially dangerous places. This study analyzes accident consequences of oil products carriers, to check and compare the hazard radius with recommended separation distances.

Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out in 5 stages, including: scenario selection, determination of the accidents source parameters, determination of atmospheric conditions, selection of reference values, and modeling the analysis of scenarios and its consequences. The process hazard analysis software tool (PHAST) is used to analyze the consequences of accidents in liquid petroleum gas and gasoline tankers.
Results:  Based on average values, the appropriate separation distances are 50±25.8 m and 361.4±184.8 m for leakage and catastrophic rupture of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tanker, and 28.3±14.9 m and 571.2±137.6 m for leakage and catastrophic rupture of a petrol tanker, respectively. The separation distance based on the catastrophic rupture is so large that it is not practical for the design and management of road tanker parking area. According to the leakage scenario, a safety distance of 28.3-50 m is required. Separation distance based on catastrophic rupture is so great, it has no applicability in designing and managing road tanker parking areas. According to the leakage scenario, a safety distance of approximately 28.3-50 m is needed.
Conclusion: With the existing separation criteria a tanker accident may spread to other parts of the parking lot and it can lead to a disaster. Therefore, it seems necessary to review and update the guidelines and standards in parking lot design and separation distances as well as emergency planning.

 
Full-Text [PDF 2381 kb]   (236 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Full Text | Subject: Safety
Received: 2022/05/4 | Accepted: 2023/03/1 | Published: 2023/03/30

References
1. Haastrup P, Brockhoff L. Severity of accidents with hazardous materials. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 1990;3(4):395-405. [DOI:10.1016/0950-4230(90)80010-8]
2. Vílchez J, Sevilla S, Montiel H, Casal J. Historical analysis of accidents in chemical plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials. Journal of loss prevention in the process industries. 1995;8(2):87-96. [DOI:10.1016/0950-4230(95)00006-M]
3. Jabbari M, Khodaparast E, hasan h. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in Iran. Iran Occupational Health. 2014;11(5).
4. Yong Liu, Lin-sheng Fan, Xiao Li, Shi-liang Shi, Yi Lu, Trends of hazardous material accidents (HMAs) during highway transportation from 2013 to 2018 in China, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 66, 2020, 104150. [DOI:10.1016/j.jlp.2020.104150]
5. Beddegenoodts S. Best practice guidelines for safe unloading of road freight vehicles, covering technical, behavioral and organizational Aspects. 2013. Available from: https://cefic.org/app/uploads/2021/09/Best-practice-guidelines-for-safe-Un-Loading-of-road-freight-vehicles-Corrigendum-2021-guidelines-road.pdf
6. UK health and safety executive, books, H. S. E. Safe use and handling of flammable liquids, (1996).
7. UK defense safety authority, Fuel & gas safety assurance assessment. (FGSAA); 2016 p. 86.
8. UK ministry of defense. JSP 317 Joint service safety policy for the storage and handling of fuels, lubricants and associated products. 2020 p. 1-4-A-1.
9. Bailey K. LPG road tank wagon parking risk assessment [Internet]. LPG & safety consultants Ltd; 2007, Available from: https://www.epa.govt.nz/assets/fileapi/hsno-ar/HRE09001/86a3da3d40/HRE09001-application-appendix-2-tank-wagon-parking.pdf.
10. Mashhadimoslem H, Ghaemi A, Palacios A, Comparison of experimental and simulations results of a large-scale propane jet fire using CFD and DNV-Phast software. Authorea Preprints. 2020. [DOI:10.22541/au.158525143.37592611]
11. Witlox, H.W.M., "Overview of consequence modelling in the hazard assessment package Phast", Paper 7.2, 6th AMS conference on applications of air pollution meteorology, Atlanta, USA, 2010.
12. Risk of commercial truck fires in the United States: an exploratory data analysis Published Date: 2012-06-29, Available from: https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/96
13. Liquid partners Group, DOT 406, DOT 407, DOT 412 and MC331 MC338 Codes, Available from: http:// liquidpartnersgroup.com.from: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Propane.
14. TOTAL, GS EP SAF 253: General Specification for Safety. TOTAL Publication, Paris 2012, Available from: https://www.pogc.ir/portals/10/imeni/doc/GS_EP_SAF_253_EN.pdf
15. Purdy G. Risk analysis of the transportation of dangerous goods by road and rail. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 1993;33(2):229-259. [DOI:10.1016/0304-3894(93)85056-K]
16. Oggero A, Darbra R, Munoz M, Planas E, Casal J. A survey of accidents occurring during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail, Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2006;133(1-3):1-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.05.053] [PMID]
17. Joint research centre, institute for energy and transport, land use planning and risk-informed decision making: proceedings of the 43rd ESReDA seminar hosted by INSA, Rouen, France, Christou, M.(editor), Eid, M.(editor), Publications Office, 2015, Available from: https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2790/28605
18. Fuel tanker explosion on Afghanistan-Iran border injures at least 60, extinguished after three days. Hazardexonthenet.net. 2022 [cited 30 January 2022]. Available from: https://www.hazardexonthenet.net/article/183470/Fuel-tanker-explosion-on-Afghanistan-Iran-border-injures-at-least-60--extinguished-after-three-days.aspx.
19. Tasneem Abbasi, Ramyapriya Ramesh, S.M. Tauseef, S. A. Abbas, Accidents occurring during transportation of hazardous substances and modeling of their consequences, International journal of engineering, science and mathematics (UGC Approved), December 2017, Vol. 6 Issue 8.
20. United nations economic commission for europe. Inland transport committee. ADR, applicable as from 1 January, European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road. UN; 2010.
21. Eric Stauffer, Julia A. Dolan, Reta Newman, Flammable and combustible liquids, fire debris analysis, academic press, 2008, Chapter 7, Pages 199-233. [DOI:10.1016/B978-012663971-1.50011-7]
22. Fuel Liquid and LPG tanker. Available from: http:// orumtrailer.com.
23. Gasoline, CAMEO Chemicals, NOAA Available from: https://https://cameochemicals.noaa.gov
24. Gasoline and LPG MSDS, Online.petro-canada.ca. 2022. Available from: https://www.online.petro-canada.ca/datasheets/en_US/w102e.pdf
25. PubChem, Bethesda, National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004-. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 6334, Propane; Available from: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Propane.
26. Dai Jiang, Xu-Hai Pan, Min Hua, Ahmed Mébarki, Jun-Cheng Jiang, Assessment of tanks vulnerability and domino effect analysis in chemical storage plants, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2019, Volume 60, Pages 174-182. [DOI:10.1016/j.jlp.2019.04.016]
27. Research Foundation report - Separation Distances in NFPA Codes and Standards, Available on https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Data-research-and-tools/Hazardous-Materials/Separation-Distances-in-NFPA-Codes-and-Standards, Date Accessed, 1/21/2023
28. U. Hauptmanns, A Monte-Carlo based procedure for treating the flight of missiles from tank explosions, Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 2001, Volume 16, Issue 4,Pages 307-312. [DOI:10.1016/S0266-8920(01)00023-6]
29. Untao Li, Yumeng Wang, Yuying Lai, Jian Shuai, Laibin Zhang, Monte Carlo-based quantitative risk assessment of parking areas for vehicles carrying hazardous chemicals, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 2022, Volume 231, 109010. [DOI:10.1016/j.ress.2022.109010]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iran Occupational Health

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb